Collaborative learning is a powerful teaching strategy that promotes student engagement, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. One of the most effective collaborative learning strategies is the think-pair-share approach. This technique involves students working in pairs to discuss and solve a problem or answer a question before sharing their ideas with the class. In this article, we will explore the think-pair-share strategy in more detail and provide an example of how it can be used in the classroom. Get ready to discover how this powerful teaching technique can help your students succeed in today’s fast-paced, technology-driven world.
What is Think-Pair-Share?
Definition and Purpose
Think-Pair-Share is a widely used collaborative learning strategy that aims to enhance student engagement, understanding, and performance in the classroom. This approach is particularly beneficial for promoting active learning, fostering critical thinking, and improving communication skills among students. The core components of the Think-Pair-Share strategy include:
- Think: Students are given time to think individually about a particular concept, problem, or question.
- Pair: Students are then paired up with a partner, and they discuss their thoughts and ideas with one another.
- Share: Each pair shares their discussion with the rest of the class, either by presenting their findings or through a brief summary.
By working through this process, students are encouraged to take ownership of their learning, actively engage with course material, and develop important collaboration and communication skills.
Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a widely used collaborative learning strategy that fosters student engagement and enhances learning outcomes. It involves three key components:
- Think: Individual thinking
- Pair: Partner talk
- Share: Whole-class discussion
During the Think phase, students work individually to process and solve a problem or answer a question. In the Pair phase, students engage in small-group discussions to exchange their ideas and perspectives. Finally, during the Share phase, students rejoin the whole class and share their insights, leading to a comprehensive and inclusive learning experience.
Benefits of Think-Pair-Share
Improved Critical Thinking Skills
Think-Pair-Share is a collaborative learning strategy that has been widely used in various educational settings. This strategy has been found to provide a range of benefits, including improved critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is a valuable skill that enables students to analyze information, identify patterns, and solve problems effectively. The Think-Pair-Share strategy is designed to enhance critical thinking skills by promoting active engagement, collaboration, and discussion among students.
The Think-Pair-Share strategy involves three simple steps:
- Students think individually about a particular topic or problem.
- Students pair up with a partner and discuss their thoughts.
- Students share their ideas with the class, either through discussion or presentation.
The first step of the strategy encourages students to think individually, which promotes reflection and analysis. This stage allows students to develop their own ideas and perspectives, which can be valuable in fostering critical thinking. The second step, where students pair up with a partner, promotes discussion and the exchange of ideas. This step enables students to build on each other’s ideas, challenge assumptions, and test hypotheses, which are all essential components of critical thinking. Finally, the third step, where students share their ideas with the class, encourages active listening and the incorporation of different perspectives. This step promotes the synthesis of ideas and the ability to evaluate arguments, both of which are critical thinking skills.
Research has shown that the Think-Pair-Share strategy can lead to significant improvements in critical thinking skills. For example, a study conducted by King and Kitchener (1994) found that students who used the Think-Pair-Share strategy showed significant gains in critical thinking skills compared to those who did not use the strategy. Similarly, a study by Hmelo-Silver (2004) found that the Think-Pair-Share strategy led to significant improvements in critical thinking skills among nursing students.
In conclusion, the Think-Pair-Share strategy is an effective way to enhance critical thinking skills in students. By promoting active engagement, collaboration, and discussion, this strategy enables students to develop their own ideas, build on each other’s ideas, challenge assumptions, and test hypotheses. The use of the Think-Pair-Share strategy has been shown to lead to significant improvements in critical thinking skills, making it a valuable tool for educators looking to enhance their students’ critical thinking abilities.
Increased Collaboration and Interaction
One of the key benefits of the Think-Pair-Share strategy is its ability to increase collaboration and interaction among students. This is achieved by breaking down the traditional classroom dynamic of a teacher delivering information to passive students. Instead, the strategy encourages students to actively engage with one another and with the material being taught.
Promoting Active Participation
Think-Pair-Share promotes active participation by requiring students to discuss their ideas and thoughts with a partner before sharing them with the rest of the class. This allows students to clarify their own understanding and to receive feedback from their peers, which can lead to a deeper understanding of the material.
Fostering Student Engagement
In addition to promoting active participation, Think-Pair-Share also fosters student engagement by allowing students to take ownership of their learning. By working with a partner, students are more likely to stay focused and engaged in the material being taught, as they are actively involved in the learning process.
Building Social Skills
Finally, Think-Pair-Share can also help students build important social skills, such as communication, cooperation, and problem-solving. By working with a partner, students learn how to effectively communicate their ideas, listen to and consider the ideas of others, and work together to solve problems. These skills are not only valuable in the classroom, but also in other areas of life.
Greater Understanding and Retention of Information
The Think-Pair-Share strategy has been shown to have a positive impact on students’ understanding and retention of information. When students engage in this collaborative learning technique, they are able to work together to deepen their understanding of the material, which leads to improved retention.
One reason why Think-Pair-Share can lead to greater understanding and retention of information is that it increases student engagement. When students work together in pairs, they are more likely to stay focused and engaged in the learning process. This increased engagement can lead to a deeper understanding of the material, which in turn leads to better retention.
Think-Pair-Share is an example of active learning, which has been shown to be an effective way to enhance learning and retention. Active learning involves students actively participating in the learning process, rather than passively receiving information. When students actively engage with the material, they are more likely to retain it over time.
Collaborative Problem Solving
Think-Pair-Share also promotes collaborative problem solving, which can help students to develop critical thinking skills. When students work together to solve problems, they are able to learn from each other’s strengths and weaknesses, and they are more likely to arrive at a deeper understanding of the material. This collaborative problem solving can lead to better retention of the material, as students are able to apply their knowledge in new and different ways.
Overall, the Think-Pair-Share strategy has been shown to have a positive impact on students’ understanding and retention of information. By promoting active learning, increasing engagement, and promoting collaborative problem solving, this technique can help students to deepen their understanding of the material and retain it over time.
Implementing Think-Pair-Share in the Classroom
Preparing for Think-Pair-Share
To successfully implement the Think-Pair-Share strategy in the classroom, it is important to take some essential steps before starting the activity. Here are some of the key preparations that can help ensure the effectiveness of the strategy:
- Clearly Define the Learning Objectives: The first step in preparing for Think-Pair-Share is to clearly define the learning objectives. This means identifying the specific knowledge or skills that students are expected to learn or master as a result of the activity. The learning objectives should be aligned with the overall learning goals of the course and should be communicated clearly to the students.
- Select the Appropriate Task: The next step is to select the appropriate task that will enable students to achieve the learning objectives. The task should be challenging enough to promote active learning and engagement but not so difficult that it becomes overwhelming. The task should also be relevant to the students’ interests and experiences.
- Establish Ground Rules: Once the task has been selected, it is important to establish ground rules for the activity. These rules should include guidelines for appropriate behavior, participation, and communication. The ground rules should be clearly communicated to the students and reinforced throughout the activity.
- Provide Guidance and Support: Before starting the activity, it is important to provide guidance and support to the students. This may include providing a model or example of the task, demonstrating how to complete the task, or providing feedback on student work. The goal is to ensure that students have a clear understanding of what is expected of them and how to complete the task successfully.
- Provide Time for Independent Thinking: Finally, it is important to provide time for independent thinking before students begin working in pairs. This means giving students time to read, analyze, or think about the task on their own before they begin discussing it with a partner. This helps to ensure that students have a solid foundation of knowledge and ideas to draw from during the pair work.
Setting Expectations and Guidelines
To effectively implement the Think-Pair-Share strategy in the classroom, it is crucial to establish clear expectations and guidelines for students. This section will outline some key considerations for setting expectations and guidelines when using the Think-Pair-Share strategy.
Firstly, it is important to clearly communicate the purpose and goals of the strategy to students. This can include explaining how the strategy promotes active learning, encourages collaboration, and helps students develop critical thinking skills. By doing so, students will have a better understanding of why they are being asked to participate in this activity and will be more motivated to engage in the process.
Secondly, it is essential to establish clear rules and guidelines for the activity. This may include guidelines for how students should interact with their partners, how they should share their ideas, and how they should listen to and respond to their peers’ ideas. By setting these expectations, students will know what is expected of them and will be able to participate in the activity more effectively.
Additionally, it is important to provide students with opportunities to practice the strategy before implementing it in a classroom setting. This can include modeling the activity for students, providing them with sample tasks or questions to work on, and allowing them to practice the activity in small groups or with a partner. By providing students with opportunities to practice, they will feel more confident and comfortable with the activity, which will lead to more effective collaboration and learning.
Lastly, it is important to provide students with feedback on their performance throughout the activity. This can include providing positive reinforcement for students who are actively participating and engaging in the activity, as well as providing constructive feedback for areas where students may need improvement. By providing feedback, students will be able to reflect on their performance and make adjustments to improve their collaboration and learning outcomes.
Overall, setting clear expectations and guidelines is crucial for the successful implementation of the Think-Pair-Share strategy in the classroom. By communicating the purpose and goals of the activity, establishing clear rules and guidelines, providing opportunities for practice, and providing feedback, students will be able to effectively collaborate and enhance their learning outcomes.
Integrating Think-Pair-Share into Lesson Plans
When incorporating the Think-Pair-Share strategy into lesson plans, it is important to consider the following steps:
- Identify the learning objectives: Begin by outlining the specific learning objectives for the lesson. This will help to guide the implementation of the Think-Pair-Share strategy and ensure that it aligns with the overall goals of the lesson.
- Select the appropriate activity: Choose the Think-Pair-Share activity that best aligns with the learning objectives. This may involve selecting a specific topic or problem for students to discuss, or designing an activity that requires students to work together to solve a problem or complete a task.
- Allocate time for the activity: Determine the amount of time that will be allocated for the Think-Pair-Share activity. This will depend on the length of the lesson and the specific learning objectives.
- Prepare the students: Before implementing the Think-Pair-Share activity, it is important to prepare the students for the activity. This may involve providing them with background information, outlining the rules for the activity, or providing them with any necessary materials or resources.
- Monitor and assess: During the Think-Pair-Share activity, it is important to monitor the students’ progress and provide feedback as needed. This may involve circulating around the classroom to observe the students’ interactions, or collecting and reviewing their work. After the activity, assess the students’ learning and provide feedback as appropriate.
Variations and Adaptations of Think-Pair-Share
The Partner-Share variation of the Think-Pair-Share strategy involves students working in pairs to solve a problem or complete a task, but with a twist. In this approach, students take turns being the “thinker” and the “sharer.” The thinker is responsible for thinking through the problem or task and coming up with a solution, while the sharer is responsible for sharing their partner’s solution with the rest of the class.
Here are some key features of the Partner-Share approach:
- Pairs work together to solve a problem or complete a task
- One student is the “thinker” and the other is the “sharer”
- The thinker is responsible for thinking through the problem or task and coming up with a solution
- The sharer is responsible for sharing their partner’s solution with the rest of the class
Partner-Share can be particularly effective in promoting collaborative learning because it encourages students to take ownership of their ideas and to actively listen to and build upon their partner’s ideas. Additionally, the sharer has the opportunity to practice their communication skills by effectively articulating their partner’s solution to the rest of the class.
Overall, Partner-Share is a versatile variation of the Think-Pair-Share strategy that can be used in a variety of educational settings to enhance collaborative learning and promote effective communication.
One-Step Think-Pair-Share is a variation of the traditional Think-Pair-Share strategy that streamlines the process by integrating all three steps into a single class session. In this approach, students work in pairs for the entire class period, alternating between individual thinking, pair discussion, and sharing with the entire class. This condensed approach allows for more opportunities for collaboration and promotes continuous learning and engagement.
Advantages of One-Step Think-Pair-Share
- Time-efficient: One-Step Think-Pair-Share eliminates the need for multiple class sessions, making it a time-efficient strategy for busy class schedules.
- Promotes continuous learning: The continuous flow of individual thinking, pair discussion, and sharing keeps students engaged and encourages active learning.
- Fosters collaboration: By working in pairs throughout the class, students have multiple opportunities to collaborate, share ideas, and build upon each other’s thoughts.
- Enhances critical thinking: The constant interaction between individual thinking and pair discussion helps students develop their critical thinking skills as they analyze problems and discuss solutions.
Implementation of One-Step Think-Pair-Share
- Divide the class into pairs and assign a topic or problem for them to work on.
- Give students a set amount of time (e.g., 10-15 minutes) to work on the task individually, followed by a transition period where they share their thoughts with their partner.
- Once students have shared their ideas with their partner, they can choose to continue working on the task individually or collaboratively, incorporating their partner’s ideas.
- After the designated class period, bring the class back together for a whole-class discussion or summary of the main ideas and insights generated through the One-Step Think-Pair-Share activity.
Tips for Successful Implementation
- Provide clear instructions and guidelines for the activity to ensure students understand the expectations and goals of the exercise.
- Encourage active participation by setting up the activity in a way that promotes collaboration and inclusivity.
- Offer constructive feedback and praise to help students develop their collaboration and communication skills.
- Be flexible and adapt the activity to suit the needs and interests of the students and the learning objectives of the course.
Online and Virtual Think-Pair-Share
One way to adapt the Think-Pair-Share strategy for online and virtual learning environments is to use video conferencing tools such as Zoom or Google Meet. In this version of the strategy, students are divided into pairs or small groups and use the video conferencing tool to communicate with each other. The teacher can then pose a question or prompt and give students a set amount of time to discuss their ideas with their partner or group.
Here are some steps to implement the Online and Virtual Think-Pair-Share strategy:
- Divide students into pairs or small groups using a video conferencing tool.
- Give students a question or prompt to discuss.
- Give students a set amount of time to discuss their ideas with their partner or group.
- After the discussion time is up, have each pair or group share one idea with the whole class.
- Encourage students to ask questions and provide feedback to each other.
By using video conferencing tools, students can still benefit from the Think-Pair-Share strategy even when they are not in the same physical location. This version of the strategy can also help students develop their communication and collaboration skills, as they learn to work effectively with others in an online environment.
Tips for Effective Think-Pair-Share
Building Rapport and Trust
Creating a positive and supportive learning environment is essential for effective collaborative learning. Building rapport and trust among students is a crucial aspect of this process. Here are some tips for building rapport and trust in a Think-Pair-Share setting:
- Establish Clear Expectations: At the beginning of the course, clearly outline the expectations for the Think-Pair-Share activity. Explain the purpose of the activity, the roles of the students, and the ground rules for effective collaboration. This will help students understand the importance of the activity and the level of commitment required.
- Encourage Active Listening: Encourage students to actively listen to their partner’s ideas and perspectives. This can be achieved by providing opportunities for students to practice active listening skills, such as asking open-ended questions and paraphrasing their partner’s ideas. By doing so, students will develop a deeper understanding of each other’s perspectives and build trust.
- Provide Positive Feedback: Provide positive feedback to students who demonstrate effective collaboration and teamwork. This can be done through verbal praise or written comments on their work. Positive feedback helps to reinforce positive behaviors and encourages students to continue working collaboratively.
- Create a Safe Space: Create a safe space for students to share their ideas and perspectives without fear of judgment or criticism. Encourage respectful and constructive feedback and discourage negative or disrespectful behavior. By creating a safe space, students will feel more comfortable sharing their ideas and building trust with their partners.
- Foster Diversity and Inclusion: Foster diversity and inclusion in the classroom by encouraging students to work with partners from different backgrounds and perspectives. This can help to promote empathy and understanding among students and build trust among different groups.
By implementing these tips, educators can help students build rapport and trust with their partners, creating a positive and supportive learning environment for effective collaborative learning.
Managing Classroom Dynamics
- Establish Clear Expectations: Before implementing the think-pair-share strategy, it is important to establish clear expectations for students’ behavior and participation. This includes setting guidelines for respectful dialogue, active listening, and taking turns.
- Monitor Classroom Interactions: The teacher should monitor the classroom interactions during the think-pair-share activity to ensure that students are adhering to the established expectations. The teacher can circulate around the room and observe the students’ discussions, taking notes on any issues that arise.
- Address Misconceptions: If the teacher observes any misconceptions or misunderstandings during the think-pair-share activity, it is important to address them promptly. The teacher can intervene and provide clarification or guidance to help the students resolve the issue.
- Encourage Student Feedback: After the think-pair-share activity, it is helpful to encourage students to provide feedback on their experience. This can help the teacher identify areas for improvement and adjust the strategy for future use.
Facilitating Meaningful Discussions
When facilitating meaningful discussions during the think-pair-share strategy, it is important to ensure that students are actively engaged in the process and that their contributions are valued. Here are some tips for facilitating meaningful discussions:
- Set clear expectations: Begin by setting clear expectations for the discussion, including the topic, the format, and the ground rules. This will help students understand what is expected of them and how they should participate.
- Encourage participation: Encourage all students to participate in the discussion, and make an effort to include quieter or less confident students. This can be done by asking open-ended questions, using inclusive language, and creating a safe and supportive environment.
- Monitor and manage: Monitor the discussion to ensure that it stays on track and that all students are participating. If the discussion veers off topic or becomes too heated, gently redirect it back to the main topic.
- Provide feedback: Provide feedback to students on their contributions, both individually and as a group. This can be done through verbal feedback, written comments, or a grade.
- Use technology: Technology can be used to facilitate meaningful discussions. For example, online discussion boards, chat rooms, or social media platforms can be used to encourage students to share their thoughts and ideas.
By following these tips, teachers can facilitate meaningful discussions during the think-pair-share strategy, which can help enhance collaborative learning and improve student engagement and understanding.
Overcoming Challenges with Think-Pair-Share
Shy or Reluctant Students
One of the challenges faced in implementing the Think-Pair-Share strategy is catering to shy or reluctant students. These students may find it difficult to actively participate in class discussions or share their ideas with their peers.
Here are some ways to address this challenge:
- Encourage participation: Create a safe and supportive environment where students feel comfortable sharing their thoughts. Encourage participation by asking open-ended questions and praising students for their contributions.
- Provide options for participation: Give students the option to participate in pairs or small groups instead of whole-class discussions. This can help shy students feel more comfortable and confident in sharing their ideas.
- Use think-pair-share as a formative assessment: Use think-pair-share as a formative assessment to gauge students’ understanding of the material. This can help identify areas where students may need additional support and allow teachers to adjust their instruction accordingly.
- Provide opportunities for practice: Provide opportunities for students to practice participating in think-pair-share activities outside of class, such as during homework or in small group settings. This can help build their confidence and comfort level with the strategy.
By addressing the needs of shy or reluctant students, teachers can ensure that all students have the opportunity to benefit from the Think-Pair-Share strategy and improve their collaborative learning skills.
One of the key challenges in implementing the Think-Pair-Share strategy is providing differentiated instruction to meet the diverse needs of learners. Differentiated instruction refers to the process of tailoring teaching methods and materials to suit the unique needs, abilities, interests, and learning styles of individual students. This approach ensures that all students have access to high-quality education and the opportunity to reach their full potential.
To effectively differentiate instruction during the Think-Pair-Share activity, educators can consider the following strategies:
- Varying Task Demands: By adjusting the complexity of the task, educators can cater to the varying abilities of students. For example, advanced learners may be given more complex tasks, while struggling students may be provided with simpler tasks or additional support.
- Supporting Individual Needs: Educators can provide individualized support to students based on their specific needs. This can include one-on-one assistance, small group instruction, or the use of assistive technology.
- Flexible Grouping: Different grouping strategies can be employed to cater to the diverse needs of students. For instance, students can be grouped based on their ability levels, interests, or learning styles. This allows for more targeted instruction and promotes a more inclusive classroom environment.
- Differentiated Materials: Educators can provide students with a variety of materials to suit their learning styles and preferences. This may include visual aids, hands-on activities, written instructions, or multimedia resources.
- Choice and Voice: Offering students choices in their learning experiences can foster a sense of ownership and engagement. Providing opportunities for students to make decisions about their learning, such as selecting topics or methods of inquiry, can help to increase motivation and improve outcomes.
By implementing these strategies, educators can effectively differentiate instruction during the Think-Pair-Share activity, ensuring that all students have the opportunity to learn and grow in a collaborative, supportive environment.
Think-Pair-Share is a highly effective collaborative learning strategy that encourages students to work together to improve their understanding of a topic. However, time management can be a challenge when implementing this strategy. Here are some tips to help you manage time effectively when using Think-Pair-Share:
- Set a clear time limit for each activity.
To ensure that students have enough time to engage in meaningful discussions, it’s important to set a clear time limit for each activity. This will help students stay focused and avoid wasting time on unproductive activities.
- Use a timer to keep track of time.
Using a timer can help you keep track of time and ensure that you stay within the designated time limit. This will help you avoid running over time and ensure that you have enough time to cover all the necessary topics.
- Prioritize the most important topics.
When using Think-Pair-Share, it’s important to prioritize the most important topics. This will help you ensure that students have enough time to engage in meaningful discussions about the most important topics.
- Encourage students to work efficiently.
Encouraging students to work efficiently is crucial when using Think-Pair-Share. This will help them make the most of their time and ensure that they are able to engage in meaningful discussions.
By following these tips, you can effectively manage time when using Think-Pair-Share and ensure that your students are able to engage in meaningful discussions that improve their understanding of the topic.
Recap of Key Points
When implementing the Think-Pair-Share strategy in the classroom, there may be several challenges that educators face. These challenges can include:
- Students who are not familiar with the strategy or who are reluctant to participate
- Difficulty in managing the conversation and keeping students on task
- Ensuring that all students have an opportunity to contribute and not just the dominant students
- Balancing the time spent on the strategy with other learning activities
To overcome these challenges, it is important for educators to provide clear instructions and guidelines for the strategy, as well as model the behavior they expect from their students. It can also be helpful to provide opportunities for students to practice the strategy in a low-stakes setting before implementing it in the classroom. Additionally, educators can use technology tools such as breakout rooms or discussion boards to facilitate the conversation and ensure that all students have a chance to participate. By addressing these challenges, educators can create a more effective and engaging learning environment for their students.
Future Directions for Research and Practice
- Exploring the Impact of Think-Pair-Share on Different Learning Environments: Future research can investigate the effectiveness of Think-Pair-Share in various educational settings, such as online or hybrid learning environments, and how it may need to be adapted to accommodate these contexts.
- Investigating the Role of Technology in Supporting Think-Pair-Share: As technology continues to play an increasingly prominent role in education, it is important to explore how it can be leveraged to support the implementation of Think-Pair-Share. This could include the use of collaborative tools or platforms that facilitate real-time communication and sharing of ideas among students.
- Assessing the Long-Term Effects of Think-Pair-Share on Student Learning Outcomes: While many studies have shown positive short-term effects of Think-Pair-Share on student learning, more research is needed to understand its long-term impact. This could involve tracking students’ performance over time and comparing it to those who did not use this strategy.
- Investigating the Impact of Think-Pair-Share on Different Student Populations: Future research can also explore how Think-Pair-Share may affect different student populations, such as those from diverse cultural backgrounds or those with learning disabilities. This could provide valuable insights into how to best adapt the strategy to meet the needs of all students.
- Developing Teacher Training Programs to Support the Implementation of Think-Pair-Share: To ensure the successful implementation of Think-Pair-Share, it is crucial to provide teachers with adequate training and support. Future research can explore the development of teacher training programs that focus on effective strategies for incorporating Think-Pair-Share into their classrooms.
- Investigating the Role of Metacognition in Think-Pair-Share: Metacognition, or the ability to reflect on one’s own thinking and learning processes, has been shown to play a critical role in student success. Future research can explore how Think-Pair-Share can be used to promote metacognition among students and how this impacts their learning outcomes.
1. What is the Think-Pair-Share strategy?
The Think-Pair-Share strategy is a collaborative learning technique that involves students working in pairs or small groups to discuss and share their ideas on a given topic or problem. This strategy promotes active learning, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills.
2. How does the Think-Pair-Share strategy work?
The Think-Pair-Share strategy involves three stages: thinking, pairing, and sharing. In the thinking stage, students are given time to think individually about a question or problem. In the pairing stage, students work in pairs to discuss their ideas and solutions. In the sharing stage, students share their ideas with the rest of the class.
3. What are the benefits of using the Think-Pair-Share strategy?
The Think-Pair-Share strategy has several benefits, including promoting active learning, increasing student engagement, enhancing critical thinking skills, and fostering collaboration and communication among students. This strategy also allows students to learn from each other and receive feedback on their ideas.
4. When is the best time to use the Think-Pair-Share strategy?
The Think-Pair-Share strategy can be used at any time during a lesson or class period. It is particularly effective when introducing a new concept or topic, or when students are struggling to understand a particular concept. It can also be used as a formative assessment to gauge students’ understanding of a topic.
5. How can I implement the Think-Pair-Share strategy in my classroom?
To implement the Think-Pair-Share strategy, start by explaining the three stages of the strategy to your students. Then, provide students with a question or problem to solve individually. Next, have students work in pairs or small groups to discuss their ideas and solutions. Finally, have students share their ideas with the rest of the class. You can also provide students with guiding questions or prompts to help them stay on track during the discussion.